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Tadir and Mekudash

Zevachim (10:2) | Yisrael Bankier | 14 hours ago

The tenth perek discusses the order of precedence regarding the offering of korbanot or parts of korbanot. The first Mishnah establishes that that which is performed more frequently (tadir) comes first. For example, the daily offering is always offered before the mussaf offering. Similarly, the mussaf offering that is brought on Shabbat is offered prior to the mussaf for Rosh Chodesh (when Rosh Chodesh falls on Shabbat).

The second Mishnah provides another rule, that if one is faced with two different korbanot, the more mekudash is offered. The Mishnayot continue by fleshing out this concept, detailing the order of kedusha as it applies to korbanot. One example relevant for our discussion is that the blood from a chatat precedes the blood from an olah, since the blood from a chatat achieves an atonement for the owner.

What is law when faced with a choice between something that is more frequent and another that is more mekudash – what comes first? At first, this question appears to be behind the discussion regarding the mussafim of Shabbat and Rosh Chodesh.

The Tifferet Yisrael comments that the first Mishnah must be teaching that the korban mussaf for Shabbat must be brought to the Temple courtyard before the korban mussaf for Rosh Chodesh. If however they were brought together, then the mussaf for Rosh Chodesh must be offered first, since it is more mukdash; it includes a chatat while the musaf for Shabbat constitutes olah offering only. (He suggests that the mussaf for Rosh Chodesh would even be offered prior to the korban Tamid, if it was brought to the Temple courtyard prior to the slaughter of the korban Tamid.) According to the Tifferet Yisrael it appears that the mekudash comes first.

The Tifferet Yaakov however direct us to the Tosfot R' Akiva Eiger who cites the Tosfot that explain that the mussaf for Shabbat would always be offered prior to the korban mussaf of Rosh Chodesh, despite the later including a korban chatat. Firstly, due to the principle of tadir, the mussaf of Shabbat would precede the olah offerings within the mussaf of Rosh Chodesh. Consequently, they would also precede the chatat, since the Torah equated the korbanot that are brought for the mussaf of Rosh Chodesh. Consequently, no proof can be brought the order of mussaf offerings.

Indeed, the Gemara (90b) asks our question and leaves the matter unresolved. The Rambam consequently rules that either may be selected. Nevertheless, the question continues to be discussed in other areas of halacha.

One example is the questions of which should be donned first, a tallit or tefillin; the tallit is warn more frequently, while the tefillin is more mekudash.

The Nemukei Yosef maintains that tzitzit should be worn first. Firstly, it is considered equivalent to all mitzvot. Furthermore, it warn more frequently. The Shagaat Aryeh (28) however finds this difficult. First, according to the opinion that the mitzvah of tzitzit is only during that daytime, it is less frequent than the mitzvah of tefillin, which on a biblical level can be performed at night. Secondly, since tefillin is more mekudash, and the Gemara's question above is left unresolved, frequency is not a reason that it should be performed first.

The Shulchan Aruch (OC 25:1) rules that the tallit is worn first, but for a different reason. He explains that we wish to fulfil the maxim of "we ascend in kedusha". The Shaagat Aryeh also finds this difficult, since a heightened kedusha is more of a reason to perform the mitzvah first, rather than later.

The Aruch HaShulchan defends the Shulchan Aruch. Recall that the Rambam above ruled that since the Gemara did not resolve the issue, when faced with the choice of tadir and mekudash one can choose which to perform first. Consequently, the Shulchan Aruch is providing a basis for the choice in this case – we ascend in kedusha. He cites the Zohar as the basis of this rationale. The Beur Halacha explains that with respect to an individual, one must ascend in kedusha gradually, step by step. Consequently, in this case, the individual first wraps himself in the mitzvah and then ascends further binding himself with bonds of kedusha.

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